Alison Brysk September 25, Activists struggling for human rights have always aspired to global reach, but in the last generation that reach has begun to become a reality. The growth of global action corresponds to a new era of multilayered human rights threats, from legacies of authoritarianism to democratic deficits to the contradictions of globalization itself. This new reality has begun to transform human rights activism, which must seek to defend new kinds of victims, use and foster new organizations, and make new connections between civil rights and a broad array of social conditions challenged by globalization. In this sense, though international trade and global investment are the most widely chronicled transnational influences on Latin American development, the globalization of the political sphere is growing as well.
Sophisticated information technologies permit instantaneous communication among the far-flung operations of global enterprises. New materials are revolutionizing sectors as diverse as construction and communications.
Advanced manufacturing technologies have altered long-standing patterns of productivity and employment. Improved air and sea transportation has greatly accelerated the worldwide flow of people and goods. All this has both created and mandated greater interdependence among firms and nations.
The rapid rate of innovation and the dynamics of technology flows mean that comparative advantage is short-lived. To maximize returns, arrangements such as transnational mergers and shared production agreements are sought to bring together partners with complementary interests and strengths.
This permits both developed and developing countries to harness technology more efficiently, with the expectation of creating higher standards of living for all involved.
Rapid technological innovation and the proliferation of transnational organizations are driving the formation of a global economy that sometimes conflicts with nationalistic concerns about maintaining comparative advantage and competitiveness.
It is indeed a time of transition for firms and governments alike. This book provides a broad overview of these issues and seeks to shed light on such areas as the changing nature of international competition, influences of new technologies on international trade, and economic and social concerns arising from differences in national cultures and standards of living associated with adoption and use of new technologies.
Page 2 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. On the one hand, their assessment made clear that though most technological advance occurs in industry, there are too few mechanisms for exchange of views on international technology and cooperation that involve both private and public sector representatives in a forum not constrained by the formal policies and stands of national governments.
There is great need for improved and more open lines of international communication on topics where engineering and technology intertwine with trade and economic growth.
The second includes relationships at the institutional level, that is, the impact of technology on the management of businesses and industries. The fourth relationship occurs at the international level.
Here information flows, trade frictions, and alliances characterize technological development, its diffusion, global competition, and economic advance.
At the human level a key area of change is the invisible contract between a manufacturing company and its customers and employees. In the factory, we are seeing a movement away from the expectation that workers should be organized to fit the technologies and a movement toward networking and Page 3 Share Cite Suggested Citation: As a result of this phenomenon, organizations that pursue single objectives may be less suited for survival than those that consider a broader range of issues that optimize the human, organizational, and technological elements.
At the institutional level, private enterprises are the principal instruments in many countries for developing and using technology, although governments play an important enabling role.
The task of private enterprises is to be knowledgeable about the current state of science and technology, to understand the needs of the marketplace, and then to create technologies, products, and services that best meet those market needs.
Morris Tanenbaum pointed out that this endeavor embraces many disciplines basic science, engineering, production, distribution, marketing, and finance and individual motivations. Many participants and observers of the contemporary technological scene propose that we are going through a period of discontinuous change as the breadth of technological applications expands and the time scale of change becomes shorter.
This is particularly true with regard to the information technologies—the one technology most rapidly changing other technologies. It achieves its greatest power when it is most global; where it provides the means to obtain access to the information systems of other countries and establish arrangements that promote the transfer of technology.
Government plays a central role in technology issues at the national level.
Technology has now become a part of almost every political discussion as politicians have realized the impact of technology on world events. Public attitudes among various countries also differ, and these differences can affect governmental technology policy.
In this respect, multinational corporations, responsibly managed and sensibly treated by the countries in which they invest, Page 4 Share Cite Suggested Citation: From an international perspective, the main issue is to sustain and improve world growth and improve growth per capita.
This breaks down into the problems of Western Europe, Japan, the United States, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and the problems of the more and less advanced developing countries.
Robert Malpas noted that it becomes essential for all these players to harness technology for growth; however, this effort is frequently constrained by protectionism, concerns about intellectual property, the demands of international marketing and finance, and, of course, national security.
The net result appears to be that emerging nations, with a few exceptions, have even more difficulty achieving the growth necessary to close the gap with leading nations.
Among the trends at the international level that can help sustain and improve world growth: As evidenced by the papers in this volume, these four relationships at the human, institutional, national, and international levels permeate discussions on the globalization of technology. In his keynote paper, Simon Ramo maintains that technological issues lie at the heart of most of the social, economic, and political issues of today, sometimes causing problems but more often offering possibilities for their solution.
From this perspective, Ramo goes on to make several intriguing predictions about the role of technology in the future.Technology has not only played a role in ushering in the age of globalization, it has been the main catalyst for its advancement.
Major breakthroughs in information technology, communication, and transportation have been the driving forces behind the early 21st century global market boom. Productivity growth—the engine of improvement in average living standards—has rebounded from a year slump of a little more than 1 percent a year to roughly percent since , a gain few had predicted.
Economic engagement with the rest of the world has played a key part in the U.S. economic revival. Also because of globalization process today there is an increased access to a broad range of media, which plays a very important role in shaping human minds and .
The globalization of technology is being spearheaded by North America, Western Europe, and Japan. is facing the double threat of enormous budget and trade deficits as well as deindustrialization of traditional economic sectors.
Japan, which has demonstrated enormous success in commercializing new technologies, has an economy excessively. Globalization Has Role in This Double Whammy The article ‘Globalization Has Role in This Double Whammy’ written by Simon Nixon for the Wall Street Journal, deliberates the impact of globalization on most of the countries around the world.
Globalization of communication, trade and financial networks highlights the potential of both prosperity and imbalances. “The creation of a rules-based multi-lateral trading system has been one of the greatest triumphs of the past 65 years,” writes Sam Nixon for the Wall Street Journal.