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Download this essay Dissociative identity disorder DIDformerly known as multiple personality disorder, is perhaps one of the most well-known and extreme psychological disorders. While DID has been extensively studied, a clear cause is still undetermined.
Childhood trauma has been identified as an important factor; however, it is not sufficient on its own to explain the roots of DID.
One particularly promising theory posits that, in addition to traumagenic origins, infant disorganized attachment may be a significant contributor to the development of DID. Neuroimaging studies have identified areas of the brain, the orbitofrontal cortex in particular, that function differently in DID patients, thus providing a neurobiological basis for the disorder.
By examining the effects of trauma on neurodevelopment, some of the differences between the normal and the DID brain can be accounted for. Attachment theory allows the cause of DID to be traced even further back to neurodevelopment that occurs during infancy. The combination of disorganized attachment with later childhood trauma provides a strong basis for the development of DID.
Neuroimaging, in its many forms, can provide structural and functional information about the brain and is a powerful tool in understanding neurobiology. Thus, neuroimaging studies pave the way in the search for a neurobiological understanding of DID.
Several promising studies have been performed that imaged the DID brain. Irregularities in these brain areas would, thus, help account for the variance of memory and emotions among the different alters present in DID.
While there may not be such a clearly identifiable structural difference in DID patients, functional imaging studies those that measure the amount of brain activity have produced some valuable results.
Two studies of interest measured regional cerebral blood flow rCBF as a way of inferring relative activity in different areas of the brain. The orbitofrontal cortex is thought to be involved in decision-making.
Thus, Sar hypothesizes that the decreased functioning of the OFC results in impulsivity and that the switch to an alter personality may represent a drastic expression of impulsive behavior caused by cognitive and emotional conflicts The second study, conducted by Reinders, et al.
The procedure is described: The neutral memory script was regarded as a personal experience by both personality states. The study discovered no difference between the NPS and TPS when listening to the neutral script, as well as no difference between the neutral and traumatic scripts for the NPS.
This pattern matches the deactivation pattern found in studies of normal subjects when recalling non-autobiographical memories as opposed to autobiographical memories.
Thus, one conclusion of the study is that, on a neurobiological level, the alters in DID do in fact have different autobiographical selves. Furthermore, among the brain areas that were deactivated in the NPS versus the TPS is the medial prefrontal cortex —3. This is a significant finding, as the prefrontal cortex is involved in personality expression and also contains the orbitofrontal cortex.
These two studies both implicate the orbitofrontal cortex as a key to understanding DID. The function of the orbitofrontal cortex can be summarized very simply as decision-making.
However, to leave it at that would be a gross understatement of the functions it actually performs. An examination of the complex workings of the OFC will illuminate the degree to which it can be seen as the crucial element in DID.
Schore summarizes the results of several studies into the functions of the OFC: But this system is also involved in the regulation of the body state and reflects changes taking place in that state Luria, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified: a clinical investigation of 50 cases with suggestions for typology and treatment philip m.
coons, ni.d. In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences. The major characteristic of all dissociative phenomena involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality as in psychosis..
Dissociation is commonly displayed on a continuum. Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly known as multiple personality disorder, is perhaps one of the most well-known and extreme psychological disorders. While DID has been extensively studied, a clear cause is still undetermined.
Childhood trauma has been identified as an important factor. Key Facts. Dissociative Identity Disorder was previously called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), but has always been classified as a dissociative disorder; not a personality disorder.
 Only around 6% of people with DID make their diagnosis obvious on an ongoing basis (R. P. Kluft, ). In the second Sivas City study, only one proband (%) had dissociative fugue as a solitary phenomenon; when present, it was usually part of a more complex dissociative disorder (DID or DDNOS).
% of the population reported having had dissociative amnesia . Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is a chronic (recurring frequently) emotional illness. A person with MPD plays host to two or more personalities (called alters).
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|Dissociative identity disorder - Wikipedia||Types and causes of mental disorders Classification and epidemiology Psychiatric classification attempts to bring order to the enormous diversity of mental symptoms, syndromes, and illnesses that are encountered in clinical practice.|
|Dissociative identity disorder - children, causes, DSM, functioning, effects, therapy, adults, drug||At least two of these personalities repeatedly assert themselves to control the affected person's behavior. Each personality state has a distinct name, past, identity, and self-image.|
|Borderline personality disorder information at Patient | Patient||Description[ 1 ] This article refers to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition ICD which is the official classification system for mental health professionals working in NHS clinical practice.|
|mental disorder | Definition, Types, Treatment, & Facts | webkandii.com||This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
Each alter has its own unique style of viewing and understanding the world and may have its own name. These distinct personalities.